Computers on Focus - Online Security Guide

10:58 讗讞专 讛爪讛专讬讬诐
24 March 2023

.MBTF .MPPN Virus Files 馃攼 [讛讙专住讗讜转 讛讞讚砖讜转 讘讬讜转专 砖诇 STOP/DJVU 讻讜驻专]

Review

Danger Level

讛讙专住讗讜转 讛讞讚砖讜转 讘讬讜转专 砖诇 STOP/DJVU 讻讜驻专.MBTF and .MPPN are the latest STOP/DJVU ransomware infections. This article is made to explain to you what are .MBTF and .MPPN files and show you ways via which you can remove it and try restoring your files.

.MBTF and .MPPN Summary
.MBTF and .MPPN Description
.MBTF and .MPPN Removal Instructions

The .MBTF and .MPPN ransomware viruses are from the cryptovirus kind and belong to STOP/DJVU 讻讜驻专. 讛诐 砖讜讗驻讬诐 诇讛爪驻讬谉 讗转 讛拽讘爪讬诐 讘诪讞砖讘 砖诇讱 讻讚讬 诇讙专讜诐 诇讛诐 诇讛讬专讗讜转 诪讜砖讞转讬诐 诇驻讞讜转 注讚 砖转砖诇诐 讻讜驻专 讻讚讬 诇讛讞讝讬专 讗讜转诐.

诇讗讞专 诪讻谉, 转讜讻谞转 讛讻讜驻专 诪讜住讬驻讛 讗转 .MBTF and .MPPN 讛专讞讘讜转 诇拽讘爪讬诐 砖诇 讛诪讞砖讘讬诐 讛诪讜爪驻谞讬诐 注诇 讬讚讬 讛- 讜讙诐 讝专讜拽 驻转拽 讻讜驻专, 砖拽讜专讗讬诐 诇讜 _readme.txt.

If your computer has suffered and infection by the ..MBTF and .MPPN viruses we suggest that you read this article thoroughly. It aims to show you ways via which you can remove the .MBTF and .MPPN ransomware and try to recover your encoded files.

砖诐 讗讬讜诐 .MBTF and .MPPN
拽讟讙讜专讬讛 讻讜驻专 / Cryptovirus.
驻注讬诇讜转 注讬拽专讬转 讛讙专住讗讜转 讛讗讞专讜谞讜转 砖诇 STOP/DJVU Ransomware. 讝讛 诪讚讘讬拽 讗转 讛诪讞砖讘 讜诇讗讞专 诪讻谉 诪爪驻讬谉 诪住诪讻讬诐 讞砖讜讘讬诐 讜诪讞讝讬拽 讗讜转诐 讻讘谞讬 注专讜讘讛 注讚 诇砖诇诐 讻讜驻专.
住讬诪谞讬诐 砖诇 谞讜讻讞讜转 拽讘爪讬诐 诪讜爪驻谞讬诐 注诐 住讬讜诪转 拽讜讘抓 诪讜转讗诪转 讗讬砖讬转 讜诪砖转诪砖讬诐 住讞讟讜 诇砖诇诐 讻讜驻专 讻讚讬 诇拽讘诇 讗转 讛谞转讜谞讬诐 诇注讘讜讚 砖讜讘..
讛转驻砖讟讜转 讜讬讛 讝讘诇 讚讜讗专 讗诇拽讟专讜谞讬 讝讚讜谞讬 讜诇讛讙讚讬专 讻诇讬 讝讬讛讜诐.
讗讬转讜专 + 讛住专讛 DOWNLOAD REMOVAL TOOL FOR .MBTF and .MPPN

讛注专讛!注讘讜专 诪砖转诪砖讬 诪拽讬谞讟讜砖, 讗谞讗 讛砖转诪砖 讘讛讜专讗讜转 讛讘讗讜转.

What The .MBTF and .MPPN Viruses Do?

讘专讜讘 讛诪拽专讬诐, ransomware viruses such as .MBTF and .MPPN enter your PC automatically when you visit an infected website or malicious website. 诇讻谉 讞砖讜讘 诇讛讬讝讛专 诪讛 讗转专讬诐 讗转讛 诪讘拽专 讜讗讬诇讜 拽砖专讬诐 砖转驻转讞.

讜讬专讜住讬诐 讗诇讛 注砖讜讬讬诐 诇住专讜拽 讘讚专讱 讻诇诇 讗转 住讜讙讬 讛拽讘爪讬诐 讛讘讗讬诐 讻讚讬 诇讛爪驻讬谉 讗讜转诐:

STOP/DJVU 专砖讬诪转 讛专讞讘讜转 拽讘爪讬诐 诪讜爪驻谞讜转 砖诇 转讜讻谞讜转 讻讜驻专

驻讜砖注讬 住讬讬讘专 诪砖转诪砖讬诐 讘转讜讻谞转 讻讜驻专 STOP/DJVU 讻讚讬 诇讛讚讘讬拽 讗转 诪讞砖讘讬 讛诪砖转诪砖讬诐, 诇谞注讜诇 讗转 讛拽讘爪讬诐 砖诇讛诐, 讜诇讚专讜砖 转砖诇讜诐 讘讘讬讟拽讜讬谉 讻讚讬 诇住驻拽 诪驻转讞 驻注谞讜讞.

砖讟专 讛讻讜驻专 讛注讬拽专讬 讘砖讬诪讜砖 注诇 讬讚讬 STOP/DJVU 讛讜讗 _readme.txt 注诐 讛转讻谞讬诐 讛讘讗讬诐:

转砖讜诪转 讛诇讘!

讗诇 转讚讗讙讜, 讗转讛 讬讻讜诇 诇讛讞讝讬专 讗转 讻诇 讛拽讘爪讬诐 砖诇讻诐!
讻诇 讛拽讘爪讬诐 砖诇讱 讻诪讜 转诪讜谞讜转, 诪讗讙专讬 诪讬讚注, 诪住诪讻讬诐 讞砖讜讘讬诐 讗讞专讬诐 诪讜爪驻谞讬诐 讘讗诪爪注讜转 讛爪驻谞讛 讞讝拽讛 诪驻转讞 讬讬讞讜讚讬.
讛砖讬讟讛 讛讬讞讬讚讛 诇砖讞讝讜专 拽讘爪讬诐 讛讬讗 诇专讻讜砖 讻诇讬 诇驻注谞讞 诪驻转讞 讬讬讞讜讚讬 讘砖讘讬诇讱.
转讜讻谞讛 讝讜 转讛讬讛 诇驻注谞讞 讗转 讻诇 讛拽讘爪讬诐 讛诪讜爪驻谞讬诐 砖诇讱.
诪讛 诪讘讟讬讞 诇讱?
讗转讛 讬讻讜诇 诇砖诇讜讞 讗转 讗讞讚 讛拽讘爪讬诐 讛诪讜爪驻谞讬诐 砖诇讱 诪讛诪讞砖讘 讜讗谞讞谞讜 诇驻注谞讞 讗讜转讜 讘讞讬谞诐.
讗讘诇 讗谞讞谞讜 讬讻讜诇讬诐 诇驻注谞讞 专拽 1 诇讛讙讬砖 讘讞讬谞诐. 拽讜讘抓 讗讬谞讜 讬讻讜诇 诇讛讻讬诇 诪讬讚注 专讘 注专讱.
讗转讛 讬讻讜诇 诇拽讘诇 讜诇讞驻砖 讻诇讬 住拽讬专讛 诇驻注谞讞 讜讬讚讗讜:
hxxps://we.tl/t-XIH9asXhHQ
诪讞讬专 砖诇 诪驻转讞 驻专讟讬 讜转讜讻谞讛 诇驻注谞讞 讛讜讗 $980.
讛谞讞讛 50% 讗诐 讝诪讬谉 诇讱 拽砖专 拽讜讚诐 诇讻谉 72 砖注讜转, 讻讬 诪讞讬专 讘砖讘讬诇讱 讛讜讗 $490.
砖讬诐 诇讘 讻讬 讗转讛 诇注讜诇诐 诇讗 诇砖讞讝专 讗转 讛谞转讜谞讬诐 诇诇讗 转砖诇讜诐.
诇讘讚讜拽 讗转 讛讚讜讗专 讛讗诇拽讟专讜谞讬 "讚讜讗专 讝讘诇" 讗讜 "讝讘诇" 讛转讬拽讬讬讛 讗诐 讗讬谞讱 诪拽讘诇 转砖讜讘讛 讬讜转专 6 砖注讜转.

讻讚讬 诇拽讘诇 讗转 讛转讜讻谞讛 砖讗转讛 爪专讬讱 诇讻转讜讘 注诇 讛讚讜讗专 讛讗诇拽讟专讜谞讬 砖诇谞讜:
[email protected]

砖诪讜专 讻转讜讘转 讚讜讗专 讗诇拽讟专讜谞讬 诇驻谞讜转 讗诇讬谞讜:
[email protected]

讛讝讬讛讜讬 讛讗讬砖讬 砖诇讱:
-

讘专讙注 讘诪注专讻转 砖诇讱, 讝讛 讬讛讬讛 诇讛爪驻讬谉 讗转 讛拽讘爪讬诐 砖诇讱, 讻讱 砖讗转讛 诇讗 转讛讬讛 讙讬砖讛 讗诇讬讛诐. 讻讚讬 诇讛讬专讗讜转 诇讙讬讟讬诪讬, .MBTF and .MPPN will be disguised as some sort of important documents and once you open them, 讗讬谉 讚专讱 诇注爪讜专 讗转 讛谞讙讬祝, 讗诐 讗讬谉 诇讱 讛讙谞讛 诪驻谞讬 转讜讻谞讜转 讝讚讜谞讬讜转.

注诇 诪谞转 诇转拽谉 讗转 讛讘注讬讛 讛谞讜讻诇讬诐 专讜爪讬诐 砖转砖诇诐 讗讙专讛 讜专拽 讗讝 转讬谞转谉 诇讱 讙讬砖讛 诇拽讘爪讬诐 砖诇讱 注诐 诪驻转讞 驻注谞讜讞. 讛诪住专 讙诐 诪住驻拽 讛谞讞讬讜转 讻讬爪讚 诇讘爪注 讗转 讛转砖诇讜诐: 讗转讛 爪专讬讱 诇诇讻转 诇-Tor 讜诇砖诇诐 讗转 讛讻住祝 讘讗诪爪注讜转 讘讬讟拽讜讬谉.

诪砖转诪砖讬诐 讞住专讬 谞讬住讬讜谉 讬讻讜诇讬诐 讘拽诇讜转 诇驻讞讚 诇讘爪注 讗转 讛转砖诇讜诐, 讗讘诇 讝讛 诇讗 讬驻转讜专 讗转 讛讘注讬讛. 驻讜砖注讬 讛住讬讬讘专 诪讗讞讜专讬 讛讝讬讛讜诐 讬讗住驻讜 讗转 讛讻住祝 诪诪讱, but .MBTF and .MPPN viruses will remain in your system and may display the same message again and again, 讚讜专砖 讬讜转专 讻住祝 诪诪讱.

How to Remove .MBTF and .MPPN Viruses

讻驻讬 砖讛讜住讘专 诇注讬诇, 讘讬爪讜注 讛转砖诇讜诐 讻驻讬 砖讛讜专讛 讬注砖讛 砖讜诐 讚讘专 讟讜讘 诇讱 讘诪注专讻转 砖诇讱. .MBTF and .MPPN will remain on your PC and might lock your files again. 诇讻谉 讛驻转专讜谉 讛讬讞讬讚 讛讜讗 诇讛住讬专 讗转 讛讻讜驻专 诪讛诪注专讻转 诇讞诇讜讟讬谉. 讗转讛 讬讻讜诇 诇注砖讜转 讗转 讝讛 注诐 讻诇讬 谞讙讚 转讜讻谞讜转 讝讚讜谞讬讜转 诪讛讬诪谉 讻讬 讬讛讬讛 诪诇讗 诇住专讜拽 讗转 讛诪讞砖讘, 诇讝讛讜转 讗转 讻诇 讛讞诇拽讬诐 讛讝讚讜谞讬讬诐 讜诇讛住讬专 讗讜转诐 诇爪诪讬转讜转.

See the guide below to learn how to remove .MBTF and .MPPN and try to restore your files using 注爪讜专 诪驻注谞讞.


Preparation before removal of .MBTF and .MPPN:

1.讛拽驻讚 诇讙讘讜转 讗转 讛拽讘爪讬诐 砖诇讱.
2.讜讚讗 砖讬砖 讚祝 讛讜专讗讜转 讝讛 转诪讬讚 驻转讜讞, 讻讱 砖讗转讛 讬讻讜诇 诇讘爪注 讗转 讛讛讜专讗讜转.
3.讛讬讛 住讘诇谞讬 讻诪讜 讛讛住专讛 注诇讜诇讛 诇拽讞转 拽爪转 讝诪谉.

砖诇讘 1: 讗转讞诇 讗转 讛诪讞砖讘 讘诪爪讘 讘讟讜讞:


1) 讞讝拽 Windows Key 讜- R
2) 讞诇讜谉 专讬爪讛 讬讜驻讬注, 讘住讜讙 讝讛 “msconfig” 讜讛讻讛 诇讛讬讻谞住
3) 诇讗讞专 讛讞诇讜谉 诪讜驻讬注 诇诇讻转 诇诇砖讜谞讬转 Boot 讜讘讞专 讗转讞讜诇 讘讟讜讞

砖诇讘 2: Cut out .MBTF and .MPPN in Task Manager

1) 诇诇讞讜抓 CTRL + SHIFT + ESC 讘讗讜转讜 讛讝诪谉.
2)讗转专 讗转 “驻专讟讬诐” tab and find malicious process of .MBTF and .MPPN. 诇讞抓 诇讞讬爪讛 讬诪谞讬转 注诇 讗讜转讜 讜诇讞抓 注诇 “住讜祝 转讛诇讬讱”.

砖诇讘 3: Eliminate .MBTF and .MPPN‘s Malicious Registries.

注讘讜专 专讜讘 讙专住讗讜转 Windows:

1) 讞讝拽 诇讞爪谉 Windows 讜- R. 讘转讜讱 讛 “讛驻注诇讛” 住讜讙 讛转讬讘讛 “regedit” 讜讛讻讛 “诇讛讬讻谞住”.
2) 讞讝拽 CTRL + F keys and type .MBTF and .MPPN or the file name of the malicious executable of the virus which is usually located in %AppData%, %% Temp, %% 诪拽讜诪讬, %谞讚讬讚转% 讗讜% SystemDrive%. 讘讚专讱 讻诇诇, 专讜讘 讛讜讜讬专讜住讬诐 谞讜讟讬诐 诇讛讙讚讬专 注专讻讬诐 注诐 砖诪讜转 讗拽专讗讬讬诐 “讛驻注诇讛” 讜 “RunOnce” 转转-诪驻转讞讜转.
3) 讗转讛 讙诐 讬讻讜诇 诇诪爪讜讗 讗转 讛拽讘爪讬诐 讛讝讚讜谞讬讬诐 砖诇 讛讜讜讬专讜住 注诇 讬讚讬 诇讞讬爪讛 讬诪谞讬转 注诇 讛注专讱 讜诇专讗讜转 砖讝讛 谞转讜谞讬诐. 诇讗讞专 砖讛讜讗 讗转专 讞驻爪讬 专讬砖讜诐 讝讚讜谞讬讬诐, 砖讞诇拽诐 讛诐 讘讚专讱 讻诇诇 讛驻注诇讛 讜诪驻转讞讜转 讛诪砖谞讛 RunOnce 诇诪讞讜拽 讗讜转诐 诇爪诪讬转讜转 讜诇讛驻注讬诇 诪讞讚砖 讗转 讛诪讞砖讘. 讛谞讛 讗讬讱 诇诪爪讜讗 讜诇诪讞讜拽 诪驻转讞讜转 注讘讜专 讙专住讗讜转 砖讜谞讜转.

砖诇讘 4: 住专讜拽 讜讛住专 讗转 讻诇 拽讘爪讬 讜讬专讜住讬诐, related to .MBTF and .MPPN and secure your system.

讗诐 讗转诐 谞诪爪讗讬诐 诪爪讘 讘讟讜讞, 诇讗转讞诇 讞讝专讛 诇诪爪讘 谞讜专诪诇讬 讜讘爪注 讗转 讛砖诇讘讬诐 讛讘讗讬诐

DOWNLOAD FREE SCANNER FOR .MBTF and .MPPN
1)诇讞抓 注诇 讛讻驻转讜专 讻讚讬 诇讛讜专讬讚 讗转 转讜讻谞转 讛讛转拽谞讛 砖诇 SpyHunter.
诪讜诪诇抓 诇讛专讬抓 住专讬拽讛 讞讬谞诐 诇驻谞讬 砖转转讞讬讬讘 讗转 讛讙专住讛 讛诪诇讗讛. 讗转讛 爪专讬讱 诇讜讜讚讗 砖讛转讜讻谞讛 讛讝讚讜谞讬转 讛讜讗 讝讜讛讛 注诇 讬讚讬 SpyHunter 讛专讗砖讜谉.

讛讙专住讛 讛讞讬谞诪讬转 砖诇 SpyHunter 转讛讬讛 专拽 鈥嬧嬜溩∽ㄗ曌 讗转 讛诪讞砖讘 砖诇讱 讻讚讬 诇讝讛讜转 讗讬讜诪讬诐 讗驻砖专讬讬诐. 讻讚讬 诇讛住讬专 讗讜转诐 诇爪诪讬转讜转 诪讛诪讞砖讘, 诇专讻讜砖 讗转 讛讙专住讛 讛诪诇讗讛 砖诇讛. Spy Hunter 讻诇讬 诇讛住专转 转讜讻谞讜转 讝讚讜谞讬讜转 诪讬讚注 谞讜住祝/讛讜专讗讜转 SpyHunter 讛住专

2) 讛谞讞讜 讗转 注爪诪讻诐 讘讗诪爪注讜转 讗转 讛讜专讗讜转 讛讛讜专讚讛 讛诪住讜驻拽讬诐 诇讻诇 讚驻讚驻谉.


3) 诇讗讞专 砖讛转拽谞转 SpyHunter, 诇讞讻讜转 诇转讜讻谞讬转 诇注讚讻谉.

4) 讗诐 讛转讜讻谞讬转 诇讗 诪转讞讬诇讛 诇住专讜拽 讘讗讜驻谉 讗讜讟讜诪讟讬, 讛拽诇拽 注诇 讛 “讛转讞诇 住专讬拽讛” 讻驻转讜专.

5) 诇讗讞专 SpyHunter 讛砖诇讬诪讛 注诐 system`s 砖诇讱 诇住专讜拽, 讛拽诇拽 注诇 讛 “讛讘讗” 讻驻转讜专 讻讚讬 诇谞拽讜转 讗讜转讜.

6) 讘专讙注 砖讛诪讞砖讘 砖诇讱 谞拽讬, 诪讜诪诇抓 诇讞讚砖 讗转 驻注讜诇转讜.

砖诇讘 5:Recover files encrypted by the .MBTF and .MPPN Ransomware.

砖讬讟讛 1: 讘讗诪爪注讜转 爪诇 Explorer. 讘诪拽专讛 讗驻砖专转 讛讬住讟讜专讬讬转 讛拽讜讘抓 注诇 讚讘专 讗讞讚 诪讻讜谞转 Windows 砖诇讱 砖讗转讛 讬讻讜诇 诇注砖讜转 讛讜讗 诇讛砖转诪砖 爪诇 Explorer 讻讚讬 诇拽讘诇 讗转 讛拽讘爪讬诐 砖诇讱 讘讞讝专讛. 诇诪专讘讛 讛爪注专 讻诪讛 讜讬专讜住讬诐 讻讜驻专讬诐 专砖讗讬讬诐 诇诪讞讜拽 讗讜转诐 注讜转拽讬 爪诇 谞驻讞 注诐 驻拽讜讚讛 诪谞讛诇讬转 诇诪谞讜注 诪诪讱 诇注砖讜转 讘讚讬讜拽 讗转 讝讛.

砖讬讟讛 2: 讗诐 讗转讛 诪谞住讛 诇驻注谞讞 讗转 讛拽讘爪讬诐 讘讗诪爪注讜转 讻诇讬 驻注谞讜讞 砖诇 爪讚 砖诇讬砖讬. 讬砖谞诐 住驻拽讬 讛讗谞讟讬 讜讬专讜住 专讘讬诐 讗砖专 诪驻讜注谞讞讬诐 讻讜驻专 诪专讜讘讛 讜讬专讜住讬 讛讝讜讙 讛讗讞专讜谉 砖诇 砖谞讬诐 驻专住诪讜 decryptors 注讘讜专诐. 专讜讘 讛住讬讻讜讬讬诐 砖讗诐 讛讜讜讬专讜住 讛讻讜驻专 砖诇讱 诪砖转诪砖 讘讗讜转讜 拽讜讚 讛讛爪驻谞讛 讘砖讬诪讜砖 注诇 讬讚讬 讜讬专讜住 decryptable, 讗转讛 注砖讜讬 诇拽讘诇 讗转 讛拽讘爪讬诐 讘讞讝专讛. 诇诪专讜转 讝讗转, 讝讛 讙诐 诇讗 注专讜讘讛, 讗讝 讗讜诇讬 讻讚讗讬 诇讱 诇谞住讜转 砖讬讟讛 讝讜 注诐 注讜转拽讬诐 砖诇 讛拽讘爪讬诐 讛诪拽讜专讬讬诐 诪讜爪驻谉, 讻讬 讗诐 转讻谞讬转 讛爪讚 砖诇讬砖讬转 砖注讜住拽转 讛诪讘谞讛 讛诪讜爪驻谉 砖诇讛诐, 讛诐 注诇讜诇讬诐 诇讛讬谞讝拽 讘讗讜驻谉 拽讘讜注. 专讜讘 decryptors 讛讝诪讬谉 讻注转 注讘讜专 讜讬专讜住讬诐 讻讜驻专讬诐 谞讬转谉 诇专讗讜转 讗诐 讗转讛 诪讘拽专 讗转 驻专讜讬拽讟 NoMoreRansom – 驻专讜讬拽讟 讝讛 讛讜讗 讛转讜爪讗讛 砖诇 诪讗诪爪讬诐 诪砖讜转驻讬诐 砖诇 讞讜拽专讬诐 讘专讞讘讬 讛注讜诇诐 讻讚讬 诇讬爪讜专 转讜讻谞转 驻注谞讜讞 注讘讜专 讻诇 讛讜讜讬专讜住讬诐 讛讻讜驻专讬诐. 讻诇 砖注诇讬讱 诇注砖讜转 讛讜讗 诇诇讻转 诇砖诐 注诇 讬讚讬 诇讞讬爪讛 注诇 讛讘讗讛 拽讬砖讜专 讜诇诪爪讜讗 Decrypter 讛讙专住讛 讛讻讜驻专转 讜谞住讛 讗讜转讜, 讗讘诇 转诪讬讚 诇讝讻讜专 诇注砖讜转 讙讬讘讜讬 专讗砖讜谉.

砖讬讟讛 3: 砖讬诪讜砖 讘讻诇讬 砖讞讝讜专 讛谞转讜谞讬诐. 砖讬讟讛 讝讜 诪讜爪注转 注诇 讬讚讬 诪讜诪讞讬诐 专讘讬诐 讘转讞讜诐. 讝讛 讬讻讜诇 诇砖诪砖 讻讚讬 诇住专讜拽 住拽讟讜专讬诐 砖诇 讛讻讜谞谉 讛拽砖讬讞 讜诇讻谉 诇讟专讜祝 讗转 讛拽讘爪讬诐 讛诪讜爪驻谞讬诐 诪讞讚砖 讻讗讬诇讜 讛诐 谞诪讞拽讜. 专讜讘 讛讜讜讬专讜住讬诐 讛讻讜驻专讬诐 讘讚专讱 讻诇诇 诪讜讞拽讬诐 拽讜讘抓 讜诇讬爪讜专 注讜转拽 诪讜爪驻谉 讻讚讬 诇诪谞讜注 转讜讻谞讬讜转 讻讗诇讛 注讘讜专 砖讞讝讜专 讛拽讘爪讬诐, 讗讘诇 诇讗 讻讜诇诐 讝讛 诪转讜讞讻诐. 讗讝 讬讬转讻谉 砖讬砖 诇讱 住讬讻讜讬 诇砖讞讝专 讞诇拽 诪讛拽讘爪讬诐 砖诇讱 注诐 讛砖讬讟讛 讛讝讜. 讛谞讛 讻诪讛 转讜讻谞讬讜转 诇砖讞讝讜专 谞转讜谞讬诐 讗砖专 讗转讛 讬讻讜诇 诇谞住讜转 讜诇砖讞讝专 诇驻讞讜转 讞诇拽 诪讛拽讘爪讬诐:

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Time limit is exhausted. Please reload the CAPTCHA.